Working for His Majesty: Research Notes on Labor Mobilization in Late Shang China (ca/ 1200-1045 B.C.), as Seen in the Oracle-Bone Inscriptions, with Particular Attention to Handicraft Industries, Agriculture, Warfare, Hunting, Construction, and the Shang's Legacies

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Keightley, David N.
China Research Monograph 67
2012. 507 pp.
ISBNs 978-1-55729-102-8 and 1-55729-102-0
$40.00

Contents

Preface — xi

Notes about the Sources, Citation, and Transcription Conventions — xvii

1. Introduction: The Setting — 1

2. The Work and the Workshops — 9
       Bone Working: 9
       Stone and Jade Working: 13
       Pottery: 15
       Textiles: 16
       Wood Working: 17
       Bronze Casting: 19
       Cowries: Bone and Bronze: 26
       The Emergence of Writing: 27
       The Workshops: 28
       The Products: 30

3. The Artisan Corps — 33
       The Status of the Artisans: 33
       The Duo Gong 多工: 34
       "The Many Strikers": 40
       Summary: 44
       The Dependent Laborers of Shang: 46
       A Note on Population: 48

4. The Zhong 眾 and the Ren 人 — 50
       The Status of the Workers: Slave, Free, or Dependent: 53
       The Differences Between the Zhong 眾 and the Ren 人: 58

5. Punishments, Human Sacrifice, and Accompanying-in-Death — 63
       Possible Punishments: 63
       The Qiang 羌 and Duo Qiang 多羌: A Sample Case: 66
       Human Sacrifice and Accompanying-in-Death: 69

6. Labor Mobilization — 78
       The Verbs for "Mobilize": 78
       The Verbs for "Making an Offering": 81

7. Who Was Mobilized — 86

8. The Occupational Lineages — 92

9. Numbers — 97
       Accuracy of the Figures: 99
       Casualties among the Zhong 眾: 101
       Casualties among the Ren 人: 104

10. Work Schedule of the Diviners — 106
       Discussion: 116

11. Leadership — 119

12. The Work: Agriculture — 124
       The Agricultural Context: 125
       Late Shang Agriculture: 126
              The Powers and the Weather: 129
              Agricultural Tools: 131
       The Yi 邑 and Tian 田: 132
       The Peasantry and the Population: 135
       Dynastic Agriculture: 136
       The Ritual Dimension: 152
       Opening Up New Land: 161
       The Use of Fire: 166
       Irrigation: 168
       Conclusions: 173

13. The Work: Warfare — 174
       Leadershp in Warfare: 174
       Army Organization: 179
       Penetration: 184
       Horse-chariot Units and the Shang Army: 187
       Shang Weapons: 189
       Shang Military History: 190

14. The Work: Hunting — 194

15. The Work: Construction — 200
       Wall Construction: 200
       Rammed-Earth Construction: 203
       Settlements and Buildings: 204
       Temples and Other Buildings: 205
       Drainage: 208
       Royal and Other Tombs: 210

16. Some Elements of Ritual Concern — 214

17. The Role of Geopolitics and Culture — 220
       Ancestor Worship: 220
       Other Demands for Work: 226
       The Role of Writing: 230
       The Creation of the Ancestors: 232

18. The Legacies — 236

Figure — 224

Tables — 246

Appendix 1: Inscription Glosses — 250

Appendix 2: Glossary of Shang Terms and Phrases — 275

Bibliography A: Abbreviations for the Oracle-Bone Collections and Other Reference Works — 368

Bibliography B: Other Works Cited — 373

Key to the Inscriptions Translated — 483

Index — 488


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