Perspectives on 70 Years of the Nuclear Age from Berkeley, a Birthplace of the Atomic Bomb

Men looking at circuit board


September 30 - October 1, 2015 | Over the past seventy years, nuclear technologies have brought about both atomic weapons and new sources of electric energy, which are now woven deeply into the fabric of many advanced societies. This symposium brings together scientists, historians, and other experts to share their views on past, present and future in an open, cross-disciplinary exchange. Presentations will start from the political and scientific history of the nuclear industry in Japan and the US and how it influenced the ethical and scientific challenges we face today.

The clash between nuclear and non-nuclear countries, between proponents and opponents, grows greater every day. Japan is a fulcrum for passionate debate on the future, even as many new nations are considering adopting nuclear power and nuclear weapons. This symposium offers a valuable opportunity to consider the weighty philosophical and pragmatic concerns that are revealed by close study of the nuclear industry, bringing together experts from the two nations that together directly witnessed the birth of atomic energy.



10:30 - 11:00 - Opening Session: Greetings
Prof. Masayuki Izutsu, Japan Society for the Promotion of S
Prof. Dana Buntrock, Chair, UCB Center for Japanese S
Prof. Joonhong Ahn, Organizer, UCB-Nuclear Engineering

11:00 - 13:00 - Session 1: Before Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Moderated by Prof. Dana Buntrock, UCB-Architecture
Science, Politics, and Ethical Choices: Berkeley and the Opening of the Nuclear Era
Prof. Cathryn Carson, UCB- History
Why Japan Decided to Enter the War with U.S.: From the Perspective of Japan's Decision-making Process
Prof. Atsushi Moriyama, University of Shizuoka

14:00 - 16:00 - Session 2: Impacts on Political Powers
Moderated by Prof. Steven Vogel, UCB-Political Science
70 Years after: Explaining Nuclear War and Nuclear Peace
Prof. Jacques Hymans, University of Southern California
The Japanese Nuclear Enigma — The Secret Nuclear Pact with the U.S. and the Nuclear Shadow She Has Feared
Dr. Masakatsu Ota, Kyodo News

16:15 – 18:15 - Session 3: Nuclear Technologies
Moderated by Prof. Per Peterson, UCB-Nuclear Engineering
The Utility of Technology in Reducing the Nuclear Threat

 Dr. Jay Davis, The Hertz Foundation
Nuclear Power Development in Japan
Prof. Atsuyuki Suzuki, Emeritus, The University of Tokyo


10:00 - 12:20 - Session 4: Impacts on Humans
Moderated by Prof. Kai Vetter, UCB-Nuclear Engineering
Americans Survive the Bomb in Japan: Nuclear Destruction's Ground Zero, 1945 and Beyond
Prof. Naoko Wake, 
Michigan State University
Impacts of the Atomic Bombings on Humans: What Do We Know after 70 Years?
Prof. David Hoel, Medical University of South Carolina
The DOE Low Dose Program at the Berkeley Laboratory: Where we Are and Future Directions
Dr. Sylvain Costes, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

13:15 - 15:15 - Session 5: Toward a Nuclear-free World
Moderated by Prof. Ron Gronsky, Emeritus, UCB-Materials Science and Engineering
Role of Japan toward a Nuclear-free World
Prof. Tatsujiro Suzuki, Director, RECNA, Nagasaki 
University (former AEC commissioner)
Doomsday Clockwork: Toward a Nuclear Weapons Free World
Dr. Kennette Benedict, Director and publisher of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, retired

15:30 - 17:30 - Session 6: Panel Discussion among Speakers
Moderated by Mr. Martin Fackler, Journalist-In-Residence, Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation
17:30 - 18:00 - Closing Session
Summary and closing remarks from the organizers


Kennette Benedict
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Doomsday Clockwork: Toward a Nuclear Weapons Free World

One legacy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was the fear that knowledge about nuclear bombs and their delivery systems would give the other side an edge in the arms race, which has resulted in a level of state secrecy in the United States and other nuclear weapons states that makes a mockery of our democratic aspirations.

But another legacy, of democratic determination, is a gift from the Manhattan Project scientists’ habit of openness and their faith in democratic action, as exemplified by Doomsday Clock on the cover of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

In the struggle against secrecy and in efforts to inform the public, the scientists of the Manhattan project and their intellectual descendants give citizens the knowledge to participate as equals in decision making about nuclear weapons and nuclear power. This is a legacy worth cherishing and deepening as we seek a world free of nuclear weapons.

Cathryn Carson
Associate Professor, UC Berkeley - History
Science, Politics and Ethical Choices: Berkeley and the Opening of the Nuclear Era

Already before Hiroshima and Nagasaki, scientists found themselves grappling with ethical and political questions about the new age they saw was about to open. It seems safe to say that none foresaw, and none could have foreseen, the complexity of the world they ushered in. Starting in Berkeley before the bomb, this talk explores the challenges faced by scientists and other technical experts in imagining the long-term societal entanglements of the exploitation of nuclear fission. It highlights the question of ethical conduct in light of the unknowability of the future and the profound power of unexpected consequences.

Sylvain V. Costes
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The DOE Low Dose Program at the Berkeley Laboratory: Where We Are and Future Directions

In this presentation, Costes will review some of the key concepts in health effects from ionizing radiation with an emphasis on recent developments at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory where scientists investigate how cells, tissue and organisms respond to radiation. Modeling and imaging approaches will be discussed and put into the context of how one can extrapolate risk from high to low dose.

Jay Davis
The Hertz Foundation
The Utility of Technology in Reducing the Nuclear Threat

In solving any problem in the national security or military world, technology, policy, and operations are coupled in a mutual trade space. Raising or lowering the use of one component may be compensated for by an equivalent adjustment in another. Ideally, future adjustments in nuclear inventories should reduce the number of weapons, improve security and safety, avoid proliferation from one state to another, avoid technology or materials leakage from the nuclear power industry, and increase deterrence against the use of nuclear weapons. Who develops and tests the various candidate verification technologies, who actually uses them in verification activities, and the intrusiveness of them are all significant issues to be addressed, as are the operational costs of verification activities. Finally, technology tools and operational agreements may be acceptable between one pair of antagonists, e.g. the US and Russia, but not between another pair, such as India and Pakistan. Lessons learned in successful conventional force reduction and stability increasing treaties such as the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty and the Open Skies Treaty offer benchmarks to consider for application in nuclear force reductions. Similarly, the evolution of operations under the new P5+1 – The Republic of Iran Agreement will hint at what may be possible going forward. Finally, the role of technology in assuring stability in a hypothetical world in which weapons states possibly approach parity in numbers of weapons will be critical, if at present only guessable.

Jacques Hymans
University of Southern California
70 Years after: Explaining Nuclear War and Nuclear Peace

In August 1945, the United States dropped two bombs that changed the image of war. Why did the US do it? The “orthodox” view is that the US dropped the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to avoid the mass slaughter of American GIs that would have occurred if an invasion of the main Japanese islands had been attempted. The “revisionist” view is that the US dropped the bombs to send a message to the Soviet Union that it would not be pushed around at the postwar negotiating table.

More recently, the historian Michael Gordin has argued that both the orthodox and the revisionist arguments are guilty of hindsight bias. In other words, both depend on the assumption that the US made its choices in the full awareness that dropping the bombs would end the war and change the world. But did the US really believe that the stakes were so high? Gordin says no; and in Hyman's own research, he has found that UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill also did not understand the magnitude of the decision being taken until after he had already given the US the green light.

This new interpretation of the history leading up to August 1945 greatly helps to explain why no nuclear attacks have occurred since then. Truman and Churchill decided to drop the bomb on Japan without thinking that the decision they were making was all that special. Since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, however, it was impossible to make such a choice so casually. Most observers have attributed the remarkably long nuclear peace to the workings of nuclear deterrence, but even if one assumes that deterrence has been effective in preventing nuclear conflict between nuclear-armed states, it cannot explain why there were no nuclear attacks against non-nuclear-armed states either, such as the US not using them in Vietnam or the Soviet Union not using them in Afghanistan. Instead, it is hard to disagree with Thomas Schelling, who—despite having made his fame as a deterrence theorist—attributes the long nuclear peace primarily to three reasons other than deterrence: first, the horror that was engendered by the original bombings; second, a great deal of dumb luck, especially during the early days of the nuclear age; and third and most importantly, the sheer passage of time without another Hiroshima, which greatly magnified the perception that to conduct such bombings was to transgress a moral taboo.

If the social dynamics of the nuclear taboo are such that it only grows stronger the further we get from the original bombings, then perhaps one could conclude that after 70 years of nuclear non-use, humanity is now safe and need not worry about nuclear war anymore. But the existence of nuclear weapons confers extraordinary power on a very small number of people. Therefore the nuclear peace remains extremely fragile, as a single reckless leader could rain untold devastation on this planet. Even more worryingly, the global taboo itself could begin—perhaps even has begun—to falter. In a video game and CGI world saturated with images of destruction, the grainy images of Hiroshima may be gradually losing their power to shock. The only chance of attaining complete security from the threat of nuclear holocaust is to pursue universal nuclear disarmament.

Atsushi Moriyama
University of Shizuoka
Why Japan Decided to Enter the War with U.S.: From the Perspective of Japan's Decision-making Process

The origins of the Pacific War remain difficult to clarify. In 1991, at the International Conference Fifty Years After, the Pacific War Reexamined, held at Yamanakako, Shin’ichi Kitaoka noted the absence of antagonism concerning national interests between Japan and the United States. Certainly, these two countries stood in opposition due to their principles. The United States demanded the application of Hull’s four principles in the Pacific, while Japan put forth the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. However, nobody was convinced that these propositions should be fulfilled at any cost.

War against the United States was not the aim Japan had pursued; rather it was an alternative to be avoided if at all possible. Avoiding war was the only way out of the maze in which Japan found itself. If so, why was this alternative taken? To understand the reason, it is necessary to examine the process of decision-making in Japan.

In the prewar era, Japan’s decision-making system was characterized by ryōron-heiki that incorporated the interests of all the mutually opposing government institutions and hikettei (evasion of decision-making) that evaded the making of decisions in order to avoid conflict. Even the prime minister could not override the interests of the various government organs. This was due to a structural flaw in the Meiji Constitution. Every actor had a veto, because each was directly responsible to the Emperor, not to the Cabinet or to the Parliament. This lack of leadership made it difficult for the government to adopt crucial policies. Consequently, many equivocal national policies (kokusaku) were adopted by the Imperial Headquarters-Government Liaison Conference (Daihon’ei-Seifu Renraku Kaigi), only to be rapidly abandoned in response to changes in domestic and international situations. Japan’s political instability was plainly evident.

The mystery deepens. How could such a vulnerable Japanese system decide on war with the United States? Moriyama examines the process of kokusaku-saikentō (reconsideration of national policy) executed by the Tōjō cabinet, and uncovers the features of the Japanese leaders’ assessment of the situation and their psychology.

Masakatsu Ota
Kyodo News
The Japanese Nuclear Enigma — The Secret Nuclear Pact with the U.S. and the Nuclear Shadow She Has Feared

Japan, the sole nation to have ever suffered from the actual military use of nuclear weapons against human beings, has relied on the “Nuclear Umbrella” provided by her security ally, the United States. This national security policy has forced a series of Japanese administrations to balance the realities of Japan’s security during the Cold War with domestic anti-nuclear sentiments influenced by the atomic bombs and later experiences with nuclear testing. Facing these realities, Japan made a secret deal with the United States, called the “Secret Nuclear Pact" (核密約).

Since the historical investigation undertaken by the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) government in 2009-10, triggered by Ota and other journalists, thousands of newly declassified governmental documents have revealed why Japan’s policy makers took the complex course that led to the Secret Pact.

Why did Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi, a grandfather of the current Prime Minister of Japan, make the secret deal that still allows the U.S. military to use Japanese airspace for nuclear strikes? Why did later governments stick to the Pact and deceive its own citizens with statements such as: “The U.S. has never brought nuclear weapons into Japanese territory”? Why did Prime Minister Eisaku Sato, Kishi’s younger brother, declare his famous “Three Non-Nuclear Principles" (非核三原則) to the Japanese nation and the world, even though he knew of the Pact’s existence? Furthermore, what changes have taken place within the Japanese nuclear policy landscape since the DPJ’s investigation?

Ota will shed new light on these questions and explain the “enigma” of Japanese non-nuclear policies, which rely on nuclear deterrence but try to evade the shadow of the nuclear bomb. In addition, Ota will analyze current and future trends in Japanese nuclear policy after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

Atsuyuki Suzuki
University of Tokyo
Japan’s Development of Technologies for the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Power

The development of nuclear technology in Japan illustrates the inevitability of an interaction between science and society. Such interactions happens in many scientific arenas across the world. However, there seem to be several nuclear-specific and Japan-specific aspects to interactions between science and society on this issue.

First, not only the government alone but also the Japanese public as a whole enthusiastically supported the decision to launch the national nuclear development program, although at the time not more than a decade had elapsed since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. To Japan, the atomic bomb appeared to be “the greatest marvel” of science, useful not only for military applications but more broadly as a new energy source substitutable for oil and coal, thereby resolving the nation’s vulnerability as a country poor in energy resources.

Second, Japan is a pacifist state. Its nuclear program is strictly dedicated to civil purposes only, being subjected to rigorous international safeguards. Such social requirements have provided good opportunities for Japan to develop and deploy nuclear technologies that might be internationally applicable, on one hand, and have led to challenges dealing with so-called ‘weaponizable’ technologies on the other. The fact that an extremely lengthy time period is needed for a pacifist state to develop breeder reactor technologies, for instance, is indicative of those challenges. This is particularly true in Japan, because the eventual aim of its nuclear program is to develop non-fossil-fuel energy, the availability of which depends on the capacity of technology rather than the amount of natural resources.

Third, nuclear safety is a sensitive issue in Japan, one that cannot be managed without social considerations. The issue is closely related to public perceptions of nuclear risks emerging originally from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, even though to a certain extent the radiation dose effects that were scientifically observed were overestimated. What is taking place in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident is apparently being interpreted in connection with this Japan-specific context. It is hoped that the challenge raised for Japan in the aftermath of the accident will create innovative solutions to a trans-scientific question: how safe is safe enough? Suzuki's presentation is intended as a look at the lessons Japan has learned from developments and experiences in nuclear technology over the last half a century, and to explore ways to make use of nuclear power while meeting the demands of non-proliferation treaties.

Tatsujiro Suzuki
Nagasaki University
Role of Japan toward a Nuclear-free World

Japan, as the only country to have suffered the complete destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the atomic bombs 70 years ago, has a special responsibility and mission to aid in the realization of a nuclear-free world. The average age of the victims of the atomic bombs (“Hibakusha”) is now over 80 years old and time is running out. Japan has also a special mission to transmit their voices and experiences to the next generation to further a nuclear-free world. But Japan is now facing two serious dilemmas. One is its dependence on a “nuclear umbrella” for its security policy, and the other is its large stockpile of plutonium for civilian nuclear fuel cycle. One possible solution for the first dilemma proposed by the RECNA research team is to establish a Northeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free-Zone (NEA-NWFZ) in which Japan, as well as DPRK and ROK, no longer need a nuclear umbrella. For the second nuclear dilemma, Japan needs to review its nuclear fuel cycle policy and should commit to reduce its stockpile through higher transparency under a possible international scheme. Japan should and can play a much greater role in realizing a nuclear-free world if it does not depend on nuclear deterrence and on the plutonium fuel cycle.

Naoko Wake
Michigan State University
Views from the Ground, Voices from America

Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have unfailingly provoked historical fascination. In particular, recent scholarship has highlighted, often with little connection to local contexts, how survivors were helpless “guinea pigs” at U.S. scientists’ disposal or “keloid girls” whose beauty could be retrieved from scarring only by America’s advanced medical technologies. Much of the scholarly attention, too, has focused on institutional medicine such as the scientific research conducted at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC). Wake's inquiry into the approximately 1,000 survivors who reside in America today—U.S.-born, U.S. citizens of Japanese ancestry who happened to be in Japan in 1945, in addition to the Japanese who came to America after the war and became citizens at some point—challenges these one-dimensional, institution-based views of survivors, exploring a history outside established medical and national categories such as “Japanese = victims = patients” and “Americans = victors = doctors.” Such exploration helps us discover lost local settings for understanding the bomb’s human costs, including long-term radiation illness that continues to affect survivors today. Using oral histories that Wake and others have collected, she will first look at a range of folk medicines and treatments that Japanese Americans offered to each other at the cities’ ground zero. Then, Wake examines U.S. survivors’ resistance to the research conducted by the ABCC. Finally, Wake examines the rise of a U.S. survivors’ attempt in the 1970s and 1980s to bring medical treatment to all survivors in America. In quiet yet adamant resistance to the medical establishment’s scientific focus on cancer, mutation, and malformation, Japanese Americans pursued access to regular, locally available medical checkups and consultations, and to community meeting places where they could share their difficult experiences being injured by their own government. These boundary-crossing aspects of U.S. survivors’ effort reveal an understanding of their approach to long-term radiation illness underexplored by the scholarship. As their oral histories show, U.S. survivors have been resourceful makers of medical care that suits their needs, not simply helpless patients or subjects of medical science.


Former Executive Director and Publisher, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Benedict served as executive director and publisher from 2005-2015 of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, the leading scholarly magazine about threats to humanity from nuclear weapons, climate change, and emerging technologies. She also published columns and articles about nuclear weapons and disarmament, nuclear power, climate change, and global governance.

She now teaches at the University of Chicago, where she is also a Senior Fellow at the Energy Policy Institute, and writes a regular column for the Bulletin.
Before joining the Bulletin, Benedict was the Director of International Peace and Security at the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation from 1991-2005, overseeing grant making on a broad international security agenda, as well as supporting efforts to reduce the threat from weapons of mass destruction and an initiative on science, technology, and security. She also established and directed from 1992-2002 the foundation’s initiative in the former Soviet Union.
Previously she taught at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and at Rutgers University, New Brunswick. She received her BA from Oberlin College and her PhD in political science from Stanford University.

Associate Professor, UC Berkeley - History

Cathryn Carson is Associate Professor in the Department of History at UC Berkeley. She is a historian of science and technology, with an emphasis on modern physics. Her books include Heisenberg in the Atomic Age: Science and the Public Sphere (2010) and co-edited volumes on Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections (2005, with David A. Hollinger), Weimar Culture and Quantum Mechanics (2011, with Alexei Kojevnikov and Helmuth Trischler), and Reflections on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (2015, with Joonhong Ahn et al.).


Staff Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

​Sylvain Costes is a Staff Scientist in the Life Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Costes specializes in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy, DNA damage quantification, image analysis, and computer modeling for radiation risk. He developed, under the NASA Specialized Center of Research (NSCOR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) low-dose radiation programs, novel imaging approaches to assess DNA damage in human cells. Dr. Costes is an active member of the Radiation Research Society and he is part of the leadership team of the Institute of Resilient Communities (IRC), a Berkeley Lab institute dedicated to providing tools that enhance resilience in communities locally and globally. Dr. Costes is the CSO and co-founder of the Berkeley Lab spin-off startup Exogen Biotechnology Inc., a company using Costes' high throughput DNA damage technology to provide phenotypic test for individuals, research institutes, clinics and hospitals interested in evaluating individual's sensitivity to genotoxic stress such as radiation or certain chemicals.

Hertz Senior Fellow, The Hertz Foundation

Jay Davis is a past president of the Hertz Foundation, and currently serves as Hertz Senior Fellow. Davis is a nuclear physicist trained at the Universities of Texas (BA ‘63, MA ‘64) and Wisconsin (PhD ‘69) where he did fast neutron experiments with Heinz Barschall. During his three-decade career at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), he built accelerators for research in nuclear physics, materials science, and multiple applications of nuclear analytical techniques. In 1988, Davis founded the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, the world’s most versatile and productive AMS laboratory, creating isotopic tracing and tagging tools for research programs in the geosciences, toxicology, nutritional sciences, oncology, archaeology, and nuclear forensics. At the time he left LLNL to join the Department of Defense in 1998, he was the associate director for Earth and Environmental Sciences. 

In the national security component of his career, he worked to develop techniques for arms control treaties, was a senior member of the NEST program, served as an inspector in Iraq for UNSCOM after the First Gulf War, and then served as the founding director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). As director of DTRA, he merged three DoD organizations to create DoD’s operating and technical focus for dealing with all aspects of weapons of mass destruction. 
As Director of DTRA, he had executive responsibility for all US inspection processes.
Among his honors are Phi Beta Kappa and Junior Fellow at Texas, an Atomic Energy Commission Postdoctoral Fellowship at Wisconsin, and being twice given the Distinguished Public Service Medal, DoD’s highest civilian award. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and has served on its Panel on Public Affairs. He has chaired the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board of the National Academy of Sciences and served on numerous APS and NAS studies.
Davis’s continuing interests are in the areas of arms control, nuclear forensics, counter-terrorism, and management of change in organizations.

Distinguished University Professor, Medical University of South Carolina

David Hoel received his BS degree in mathematics from U.C. Berkeley followed by a PhD from UNC Chapel Hill and a post doc in preventive medicine from Stanford. He is a distinguished university professor at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. Previously he was a Division Director at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) of N.I.H. being responsible for epidemiology, biostatistics, biochemical toxicology and molecular toxicology. Prior to joining N.I.H. he worked for 2 years at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the biology division. While at NIEHS he spent 3 years working at RERF in Hiroshima on the health effects of ionizing radiation and has participated in monitoring radiation levels in the Fukushima area. Currently he is a member of the National Academy’s science advisory committee for RERF and has served as a member of BEIR V and the Radiation Advisory Committee of EPA’s Science Advisory Committee. He has served on numerous National Academy Committees and international committees such as IARC, UNSCEAR and IAEA. Finally he is a member of several scientific organizations including the National Academy of Medicine.

Associate Professor, University of Southern California

Jacques E.C. Hymans is associate professor of international relations at the University of Southern California. His research focuses on international security affairs and on national identity. His most recent book, Achieving Nuclear Ambitions: Scientists, Politicians, and Proliferation (Cambridge University Press, 2012) was awarded the 2014 Grawemeyer Award for Ideas Improving World Order, the 2013 American Political Science Association Don K. Price Award for best book published during the last three years on science, technology and environmental politics, and the 2013 National Academy for Public Administration Louis Brownlow Award for best book published during the last two years on public administration. His first book, The Psychology of Nuclear Proliferation: Identity, Emotions, and Foreign Policy (Cambridge University Press, 2006) was awarded the International Society of Political Psychology’s Alexander L. George Book Award for best book on political psychology and the Mershon Center for International Security Studies’ Edgar S. Furniss Book Award for best first book on national and international security. Hymans has also published journal articles in Foreign Affairs, International Security, European Journal of International Relations and others, and he is an editorial board member of several academic journals including International Studies Quarterly.

Journalist-in-Residence, Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation

Martin Fackler covered Japan and the Korean peninsula as Tokyo bureau chief for the New York Times from 2009 to 2015. In 2012, he was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in international reporting for his and his colleagues' investigative stories on the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear meltdown that the prize committee said offered a "powerful exploration of serious mistakes concealed by authorities in Japan." Fackler is also the author (in Japanese) of the bestseller “Credibility Lost: The Crisis in Japanese Newspaper Journalism after Fukushima,” a critical look at Japanese media coverage of the 2011 earthquake and nuclear disaster. In total, he spent a decade in the Tokyo bureau of the New York Times, where he also served as economics correspondent. Before joining the Times in 2005, he worked in Tokyo for the Wall Street Journal, the Far Eastern Economic Review, the Associated Press and Bloomberg News, and in Beijing and Shanghai for AP. He has Masters degrees in journalism from the University of Illinois at Urbana and in East Asian history from the University of California, Berkeley. He is currently Journalist-in-Residence at the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, a Tokyo-based think tank.

Associate Professor, University of Shizuoka

Atsushi Moriyama is Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations, School of International Relations, at the University of Shizuoka. His research of modern Japanese history includes an emphasis on intelligence history.
His publications and presentations have focused on political process and decision-making leading up to the conflict between Japan and the U.S. during World War II. He has analyzed Japan’s wartime policy and diplomacy based on intelligence documents and the inner workings of Japan’s political and military leadership.
Moriyama is author of Nihon wa naze kaisen ni fumikitta ka (Why Japan decided to enter the war with the U.S.) (2012) and other publications related to Japan’s wartime history.
Moriyama received his B.A. in literature from Seinan Gakuin University and his Ph.D. in literature from Kyushu University.

Senior Editor, Kyodo News

Masakatsu Ota is a Senior Editor at Kyodo News, a position he has held since April 2009. He reports on a variety of nuclear issues, non-proliferation and the U.S.-Japan security relationship.
Ota is the author of six Japanese books on nuclear issues. He recently published Nichibei Kaku Mitsuyaku no Zenbo (The Whole Picture of the U.S.-Japan Secret Nuclear Deal) and Nichibei Kaku Domei (US-Japan ‘Nuclear’ Alliance).
Ota joined Kyodo in April 1992 as a staff writer. After joining Kyodo, he worked as a correspondent in Hiroshima, Osaka and Takamatsu. In 2001, he became a political correspondent, covering the Prime Minister’s office and the Foreign Ministry of Japan. From April 2003 until March 2007, Ota became a Washington correspondent. In Washington, he covered a range of issues related to U.S. politics, security and nuclear policies, as well as U.S.-Japan relations and non-proliferation issues.
Ota was awarded the Vaughn-Uyeda Prize in April 2007 for his investigations into the history of the U.S.-Japan security relationship, the history of the Second World War and his series of scoops on U.S. nuclear policy. He was also awarded the Peace Cooperative Journalist Fund Prize in December 2009 for his investigative reports into the secret U.S.-Japan nuclear deal during the Cold War.
Ota received a B.A. in political science from Waseda University. He was awarded the Fulbright Scholarship in 1999 and conducted research at the University of Maryland from 1999 to 2000. He received a Doctorate from the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies in Tokyo in 2010 for his research on U.S.-Japan nuclear policy.

Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo

Dr. Atsuyuki (Atsu) Suzuki is Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo. From 2010 to 2013, he was President of the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency. Prior to that, he served on the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan as Chair from 2006 and as a full-time member from 2003. He was Professor of Nuclear Engineering at the University of Tokyo for many years until his retirement in 2003.
Suzuki's major scientific interests include nuclear fuel cycle engineering, radioactive waste management and material safeguards, and energy modeling from global perspectives. He organized and completed a number of projects, including leading a security management project while at the University of Tokyo. Internationally, he was co-head of a joint study conducted by Harvard University and the University of Tokyo entitled Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, and chaired a task-force that produced a panel report at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington D.C. titled Managing the Global Nuclear Materials Threat.
In 1978, Suzuki was selected as the Japanese Representative to the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowship, which provides an opportunity to study in the United States for a couple of months as an honored guest. For a year and a half from 1974 to 1975, he worked in Austria for the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, joining the global energy study group as an expert in mathematical modeling and nuclear energy.
In 2014, Suzuki was honored to receive the best article award from Risk Analysis, for his paper “Managing the Fukushima Challenge”. In this paper, he presents a socio-technical view of how Japan should act on the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident.
The Prime Minister appointed Suzuki to the Scientific Council of Japan. Internationally, he served on the Board of Nuclear and Radiation Studies at the National Academy of Sciences in the United States.
Suzuki is a Fellow of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, and was a member of the American Nuclear Society, where he served as the Associate Editor for Asia at the journal Nuclear Technology. In 2014, he was elected President of the Pacific Nuclear Council. He holds a doctorate in nuclear engineering from the University of Tokyo.

Professor, University of Nagasaki

Tatsujiro Suzuki is a Director and Professor with the Research Center for Nuclear Weapons Abolition, Nagasaki University (RECNA). Before joining RECNA, he was a Vice Chairman of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) Cabinet office from January 2010 to March 2014. Before that, he was an Associate Vice President for the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan (1996-2009), Visiting Professor at the Graduate School of Public Policy, the University of Tokyo (2005-009), an Associate Director of MIT’s International Program on Enhanced Nuclear Power Safety from 1988-1993 and a Research Associate at MIT’s Center for International Studies (1993-95), where he co-authored a report on Japan's plutonium program. He is also a Council Member of Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (2007-09 and since 2014). Suzuki has a PhD in nuclear engineering from Tokyo University (1988).

Associate Professor, Michigan State University

Naoko Wake is an Associate Professor of history at Michigan State University. Her field of specialization is the history of medicine, gender, sexuality in the United States and the Pacific Rim, and she is the author of Private Practices: Harry Stack Sullivan, the Science of Homosexuality, and American Liberalism (Rutgers, 2011) and the co-author (with Shinpei Takeda) of Hiroshima/Nagasaki Beyond the Ocean [Umi wo koeta Hiroshima Nagasaki] (Yururi Books, 2014). She is currently working on her second monograph Bombing Americans: Gender and Trans-Pacific Remembering after World War II, which explores the history of Japanese American and Korean American survivors of the atomic bombs with a focus on their cross-national and gendered memory, identity, and activism. She is a recent recipient of the National Science Foundation's Science, Technology, and Society Grant (co-PI), Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims Research Grant, and the Association for Asian Studies' NEAC Grant.



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